Rabbi Jeffrey A. Marx

July, 2008


                   The story of the Breakstone/Bregstein family begins in the early 1800s[1], in an area to the south of the city of Kaunas,[2] Lithuania.[3]  Bregshtein family members lived in the shtetl of Panemune (1829 and 1830)[4], which was directly across the river from Kaunas; in Pagermow or the Pagermow area, outside of Panemune (1846)[5]; in Kaunas, itself (1847)[6]; and on a farm outside of Panemune, in an area called Patemulshelis (1860).[7]

                   Beginning in the 1850s, several Bregshtein family members who came from Panemune moved to other towns in Lithuania[8]: Mariampole (1855 and 1875)[9], Suwalk (1864)[10], Weiwery (1866)[11], Zeimiai (1874)[12], Stakliskes (1874)[13] and Aleksot (1878).[14]

In the late 1860s, family members began leaving the Panemune area for other parts of the world.  This may be due, in part, to a severe famine and cholera outbreak that affected Suawlki Gubernia from 1867-1869.[15]

One group of family members immigrated to America from 1869-1876.[16]  Most of the family settled in America between 1880 and 1920.[17]  Upon arriving there, they settled in Pennsylvania towns: Honesdale, Scranton, Childs, Ambridge, and Wilkes Barre, as well as in New York City.   By 1900, family members were living in Chicago, Detroit, D.C., Pittsburgh and Virginia.[18] At the 1923 family reunion in Chicago, family members came from New York, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Washington, D.C., Ohio, West Virginia, Mississippi, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan, New Jersey and Canada.[19]

In America, the family adopted variations of their original name: Bregstein, Bregstone, Breakstone, and Brackstone.  Some of them became peddlers, others started out as push‑cart vendors.  Joseph and Isaac Breakstone, for example, achieved renown as one of the biggest butter and cheese wholesalers in the U.S.[20] The second generation became doctors, lawyers, businessmen and merchants of various kinds.[21]

Another group of family members immigrated to Sweden (1869)[22], while others went to Danzig(1888) and Amsterdam(1919).[23]

Finally, some family members settled in other parts of the Russian Empire: Odessa (1877)[24], Minsk (1897)[25], Warsaw (1901)[26], Vilna (1904)[27], Obrowo[28], Grodzowo[29], St. Petersburg[30], Pyontnitza[31],Moscow[32], Tarnobrzeg[33], Sokolka[34] and Rostov(c. 1915).[35]

By the early 1900s, only a small number of family members remained in Panemune.[36]  (The family farm had been sold by 1938).[37]  Until the 1940s family members lived in Panemune or across the river in Kovno and Slobodka.[38]  One Bregstein family was exiled to Siberia in 1941.[39]  All but three of the last remaining family members in Lithuania, perished at the hands of the Nazis between 1941 and 1944.[40]  In 1973/4, approximately one hundred years since their emigration began, the last Bregstein family members left Lithuania.[41]

At the opening of the Twenty-First Century, family members were to be found in many parts of the world: France, Costa Rica, The Netherlands, Canary Islands, Uruguay, Argentine, Israel, United States, England, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Spain and Sweden.[42]


[1]  The earliest record of a Bregstein living in Lithuania is the 1829 death record of  Hirsha Bregshtein

(See “Hirsha Bregshteyn, #43, 1829” in Panemune Death Registry, 1826-1837, Lithuanian State

Historical Archive, Vilnius, Lithuania). It  seems likely that he had been living in Panemune for some

 time before that.  From 1827 to 1843,  while Russian Jews were required to serve in the army,

Polish Jews were exempt.  As a result, many  Russian Jews came to the Augustow Gubernia area

during these years.  See Beider, "Jewish Surnames  in the Kingdom of Poland",Op. Cit.,p.18.)


[2] (54* 51’ Latitude; 23* 58’ Longitude).  Kaunas (in Yiddish, Kovno) is situated at the juncture of the Nieman and Neris rivers.  It was settled by Jews from Troki (along the Vilna-Kovno trade route) in the 15th Century.  Over the next two hundred years, Jews lived in Kovno, fleeing to Slobodka, across the Neris river, when they were expelled.  By 1850, Kovno was the center of Jewish cultural activity in Lithuania.  In 1864, its Jewish community numbered 16,000.  Kaunas, today, is the second‑largest city in Lithuania.  It is an industrial center, with textile mills and diversified manufacturing.  (See Encyclopedia Judaica, "Kaunas"; Grolier's Academic Encyclopedia, "Lithuania"; Igud Yotzai Lita b'Yisrael, Yahadut Lita, Vol. 2, "Kovno", Tel Aviv, 1984).


[3] Lithuania (in Polish: Litwa; in Yiddish: Lite; in Russian: Litva; and in Lithuanian: Lietuva) is located on the Baltic Sea, bounded on the north by Latvia, on the east by Byelorussia, on the southwest by Poland, and on the west by Russia.  At the beginning of the 18th Century, 1.5 Million Jews lived in Lithuania.  They worked as merchants, shopkeepers, innkeepers, and artisans.  Associated with the Lithuanian Jews was a certain emotional dryness, the superiority of the intellect over emotion, mental alertness, sharp‑wittedness and pungency. (See Encyclopedia Judaica, "Lithuania"; Grolier's Academic Encyclopedia, "Lithuania"; Dov Levin, The Litvacks, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 200, p.21).


[4] Chaim Hirsch Bregstein, (Beryl’s son) was living there in 1829. (See “Hirsha Bregshteyn, #43, 1829” in Panemune Death Registry, 1826-1837, Lithuanian State Historical Archive, Vilnius, Lithuania). Nisel's two sons, Shlomo and Chaim Bregstein, were living there in 1830. (See….) Nisan Bregstein was living in Panemune in 1840  (His son’s (Yehuda/Julius) gravestone,(erected in 1926), gives his date of birth as 1840.  1910 NY Census, "Julius Bregstein", states date of birth was 1842.  1880 Congregational Book of the Jewish Synagogue of Stockholm, lists "Julius Brukstein, born in Panimon," (p. 356) and Moses Bregstein and his wife, Mira, were living in Panemune in 1846 Their son, Judel Leiba was born there in 1846.  (See Civildepartementets Konseljakt, 12/12/1875, “Judel Lejba Bragstens”, Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Sweden).


[5] The Malmo, Sweden census lists Nisan’s son’s, (Berman), birthplace as Pajermow, (Pogiermon) either the town or the administrative district just to the southwest of Panemune or the town of Pagirmuoneus (approximately 3 miles west of Patamulselis). (See Husforhorslangd Malmo, s:t Petri, Ai:86, Vaveriet ii, pg. 241, Stadsarkivet i Malmo; Polish Encyclopedia, vol. II, Territory and Population of Poland, "Suwalki", Geneva, 1924; Lithuanian map, 1:100,000, Library of Congress Map Division, ca. 1927).   Pogiermon should not be confused with Pagiriai (Pogir), which was north of Kaunas (Chester Cohen,Shtetl Finder,pg. 74).


[6]   His son, Yudel,  was born there in 1847. In 1847, Chaim Hirsch’s son, Yudel was born there, as was Michala Brackstein in 1853 (See Hamburg Indirect Passenger List, 1855- 1873, p. 491A.)


[7]  It is not known for certain, whether Beryl and Sarah were born in Panemune or Patemulshelis or whether they settled on the farm some time after their children were born.  The death certificate of Avram, Beryl's son, states that he and his parents were born in Suwalk.  "Suwalk", however, may refer to the gubernia (province) in which Panemune and Patemulshelis were located, not to the actual town of Suwalk.


[8]    The exception seems to be Wolf Brecksztayn, who was living in Konin, Poland in 1859. (See All Polish Database on; Mormon film #742000, 1859 Births, Konin, Poland.)  There are at least two towns named Konin in Poland.  One is 300 miles SW of Panemune and the other 350 miles WSW.  Brecksztayn, here, may, however, be a corruption of Baruchshtein.


[9]  Klara (Chaya) Bregstein,(Beryl’s daughter), was living in Mariampole and Gustav Albert Breksztejn was born there in 1875.  Klara’s son, Chaim, was born there that year.  (See Oskarshamn Husforhorslangd AI:8, 1882-1892, p. 65, House No. 19).  Her brother, Selig, was there by 1863, the year his son, Jacob, was born.  (See NY County Court case #7143, Jacob Breakstone, 1922.)  Mariampole is 31 miles SW of Panemune. Gustav has not been identified positively as a family member, especially given his unusual first name. (See Mariampole 1875 Birth Record, Russian index, act 26, #4.) Selig Bregstein and his family may have been living there in 1889 (Ship’s manifest, S.S. Wieland, 8/31/1889.  Town of origin: Mariampolski).


[10] Yudel Brechstein, (Chaim Hirsch’s son), was living in Suwalk in 1864. (See Marriage Registration Document, 25 October 1864, Suwalk Parish Jewish Records, for Judel’s marriage, there). Suwalk was 66 miles SW of Panemune. 


[11] Weiwery (Veiveriai) is 12 miles S.W. of Kaunas. Chaim Hirsch, in 1866, lived in Weiwery and Chaim's son, Philip Bregstone, was born there.  (See The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, "Bregstone, Phillip"; Meites, Hyman L., History of the Jews of Chicago, Jewish Historical Society of Illinois, 1924, P.359.)  The fact that Bernard Horwich, in his memoir of life in Panemune, did not mention Chaim, might suggest that Chaim had been living in Weiwery for some time.


[12] Zeimiai is 25 miles NNE of Panemune.  Shimen Bregshteyn was in Zeimiai with his wife and four children in 1874.  (See 1874 Family List for Kaunas District, Kaunas Regional Archives, Fond I-61/Inventory 2/ File 5533).


[13] Fishel Fayvish Brekshteyn was Stakliskes which is 22 miles SE of Panemune.  Fayvish was living in Stakliskes with his son, Israel. (See 1874 Trakai District Alphabetical List of Males, in Lithuania Archives LVIA/Fond 381/Inventory 11/File 1594 and Registry Book of Births, Panemune, 1878, "Yehudit.") 


[14] Aleksot is the next town south of Panemune. 


[15] "The Jews, concentrated in the cities and towns, fed themselves with scraps of cabbage, turnips and potato skins.  Mortality rose at an alarming rate.  Having no possibility of escaping to the interior of Russia and saving themselves from the effects of hunger and disease, many made for the western border."  (Grigori Aronson, "The Kovno Conference of 1869", Lite: Bukh Ayns, New York, 1951).  Other factors for this early emigration (early, that is, compared to the large scale Eastern European emigration of the 1880s) included cholera epidemics in Suwalk Gubernia and the prospect of conscription into the Czar’s army.  (Jill Whitehead, “From Rajgrod to Humberside”in Landsmen, Vol. 12, Nus. 3-4, Dec., 2002, p. 3).

It should also be kept in mind that due to the poverty in Panemune, all the choices made when one became older, involved leaving the town.  The Horvitz family provides a good example of this: One could enter the military, marry into a wealthy family outside of Panemune (Aron Horvitz), study in a larger city to be a rabbi while being supported by the community (Hirsch Horvitz), find work in another city (Henach Horvitz), or emigrate to America (Berl Horvitz). (Horwich, Op. Cit., pp. 38,39, 47,49.)


[16]  Selig's son, Henry B. (Chaim Ber) Breakstone, arrived in America in 1869. (Hamburg Indirect Passenger Lists, 1855-June, 1873, has a Berka Brechstein, age 18, from Ponimon, leaving Hamburg on the Roland, 8/13/1869.  Is this Chaim Ber?) Rachel Leah's daughter, Amelia Breakstone Wisansky, in 1872. (The 1900 census shows that Amelia's husband, Samuel Wisansky, came to the U.S. in 1865.  He may have been the first from Panemune to do so.)  Bernard Frank of Wilkes Barre, may have arrived earlier, but his immigration date is not known. 

Chananel (Lippa) Bregstein left in 1870 for the U.S.  Lippa, his wife and his son, Nissen, left from Hamburg in March, 1870.  They were assisted by the Koenigsburg Relief Committee, Haupt-Komitet zu Helfen die Uberwanderung der Juden, which was established to help resettle Jews suffering from the famine of 1867-1869. (See Szajkowski, Zosa, "The First Organized Emigration Emigration from Eastern Europe to the U.S.:1869-1870", YIVO Bleter, YIVO, #40, 1956; and Dov Levin, The Litvaks, p.73.  The 1900 Census for Pennsylvania gives Lippa's immigration date as 1869.) 

Morris Samuel Breakstone arrived in New York in 1874. See Federal Census, New York, 1920, "Breakstone, Morris".  Bernard Frank was living in Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania in 1874 and in 1876, Jacob Nathan (Yekl) Breckstone was living in Scranton. (Wilkes Barre City Directory, 1874 and Scranton City Directory, Webb and Co., 1876.)  No record of Yekl's immigration date is available, but the 1900 Federal Census indicates that Yekl's son, Phillip, was born in Scranton in 1872.  Yekl's date of immigration was thus 1876 or earlier, possibly as early as 1872.


[17]  There were other factors for emigrating, in addition to the famine.  There were restrictions on the Jews since the Polish insurrection of 1864, prohibiting them from buying land.  In 1882 were the May Laws, prohibiting Jews from renting land outside of cities and incorporated towns.  Land scarcity, general agrarian depression, poverty, overcrowding, legal and economic discrimination, and rising persecutions and pogroms, provided the impetus for emigration.  Also, by 1881, a series of railways connected the Russian/German border to the port cities of Bremen and Hamburg, making travel easier.  (Migration From the Russian Empire, vol. I, Ira Glazier, editor, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1995, pp. vi,viii,ix; Dov Levin, The Litvaks, p. 82)


[18] The Breakstone World, Vol. 9, No. 1 (10/1937), related that in 1937 the family numbered 800 in the Univted Stated and 250 in Europe. Both numbers were vastly exaggerated.


[19]   Associated Press, 8/16/1923.


[20] They started their business around 1896, with the help of their cousin, Morris, who had a small butter and egg business of his own before their arrival in NY. The Breakstones were certainly familiar with producing cheese products.  Wolf Bregstein recalled, that when he visited the family farm in Patemulshelis (circa 1910), he would eat "white curd paste and cottage cheese..."  (Philo Bregstein, Terug naar Litouwen, p. 47).  The company was sold to the National Dairy Corporation in 1928, and then to Kraft Corporation in the 1950’s, who continues to use the family name.


[21] These included Dr. Benjamin Breakstone, a Chicago surgeon; Judge Phillip Bregstone, who wrote a history of the Jews of Chicago; and Hammond Fischer, the cartoonist who created Joe Palooka.


[22] Yehuda Bregstein left in 1869 for Malmo, and by 1870, his brother, Berman, was living there, as well. In 1875, Yudel Laib Bregsten was peddling in the district of Gamleby, near Vastervik. (See Husforhorslangd Malmo Caroli; Tax List, Malmo Sweden, 1873; Correspondence with Stadsarkivet I Malmo, 11/19/1986, #327/86-551; Trattner, Op. Cit., 1980; NY 1900 census; Breakstone Newsletter Vol. I, No. III (4/1958); Siegel, Op. Cit; 1880 Oskarshamn Husforhorslangd; Civildepartementets Konseljakt, 12/12/1875, "Vistas I Riket", Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Sweden.)  By 1876, Klara (Chaya) Bregstein Frankel and her family arrived in Gamleby. Her husband's brother, Moritz Frankel, was already settled in Sweden. (See letter from Fredrick Frankel, 2/2/1996; Hersson-Ringskog, Paula, Oskarshamns Mosaiska Formsamling, [Oskarshamn’s Jewish Community]1888-1938, p. 5). In 1886 and 1889, two of Klara's children, Jacob and Chaim Berl, emigrated from Oskarshamn, Sweden to PA. [Interview with Sally Rosenn, 4/30/89.])  There may be a link here with Judel Leib Bregsten who was peddling in Gamleby.  (See above).


[23] Shebsel (Etienne) Bregstein, left for Danzig by 1888 and was supported by his brother, Hershel Zorach, who owned land and a brick factory in Panemune (see below).  He next went to Le Havre, France and subsequently settled in Amsterdam. Wolf Bregstein went to Amsterdam in 1919 and from there to Buenes Aires, eventually settling in Montevideo, Uruguay.


[24] In 1877, Isaac Breakstone left for Odessa, probably joining several family members already settled there. (See Breakstone World, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1932.)  The Breakstone World, Vol. I, July, 1930, states that his brother, Joseph, also went to Odessa before coming to America.  Issac (and possibly Joe) returned to Panemune after a pogrom broke out in Odessa on May 3d, 1882 and shortly thereafter, left for America.  Jacob Breakstone's 1922 court case states that he lived in Odessa for 33 years before emigrating to America in 1897. (“As the problems of overpopulation and grinding poverty reached crisis proportions in the shtetls of the northwestern regions of the Pale of Settlement, the next best and no doubt cheaper alternative to emigration to Western Europe or the United States was resettlement in Odessa…Since Odessa was located with the Pale, Jews did not require special permission to move there…” [Robert Weinberg, “The Mystique of Odessa: Russia’s El Dorado in Roots-Key, Winter 2003, p. 18}).  Odessa is 3,000 miles ENE of Panemune.


[25]  Rochel and Sore Bregstein were living in Minsk in 1897, as was Selde (Seide?) Brekstein in 1905. (See Ellis Island Database, Immigrant arrivals.) Minsk is 208 miles SSW of Panemune.


[26]Aaron Bregstein was living in Warsaw and working as a broker in 1901 (See Ellis Island Database, Immigrant arrivals and 1901 business directory for the Russian Empire {"Vsya Rossiya"}).  Warsaw was 216 miles from Panemune.


[27]  Isack Brechstein, in 1904, had been in Vilna . Vilna is 55 miles ESE of Panemune.


[28]  In 1906, Aron Bregsztejn, a landlord, was living in the village of Obrowo.  Obrowo was in Lipno district, Plock guberniya and was 174 miles SSE of Panemune.  (See 1906 Russian voter list: Plotskie gubernskie vedomosti; Alexander Bieder coorespondence with Jeffrey A. Marx, 2/1995).  .

[29] In 1910, Moische Brekstein was living in Grodzowo. (See Ellis Island Database, Immigrant arrivals).  Grodzowo, Russia, is 349 miles from Panemune. Two villages named Grodzowo in Poland, are between 336-399 miles WSW of Panemune.


[30]  Around 1915, Rachel Bregstein and her husband, Max Hurwitz went to either Odessa or St. Petersburg.They returned to Panemune around 1920. (See Philo Bregstein, Terug naar Litouwen, op. cit).  St. Petersburg is 420 miles NNE of Panemune.


[31] In 1929, Fanya Bregshtein was living in the village.  Today, Piatnica.  It is near Lomza, S.E. of Kolno.  (See Pinkas Hakehillot, Poland, Vol. IV, Warsaw and Its Region, Yad VaShem, Jerusalem, 1989, p. 349.)


[32] In 1934, Sonia Kagansky Skutelski was living with her children in Moscow. (See Breakstone World, January, 1935, pg. 1.)  It is probable that Sonia and her husband went there during WWI.  Moscow is 538 miles ENE of Panemune.


[33]  In the early 1940s, five Bregstein families were living in the city. Joseph Bregstein and family; Shalom and Miriam Bregstein; Yehuda Leib Bregstein; Shimon Bregstein; Esther Raizl Bregstein.  (See Kehilat Tarnobrzeg-Dzikov, Yakov Fleischer, Ed., Tel Aviv, 1973, p. 342.)  Tarnobrzeg is N.E. of Tarnow, Western Galicia, and is 310 miles SSW of Panemune.


[34]  Chaim Lazar Bragstein and his family and Hershke Bragstein and his wife, were living in Sokolka, Poland in the early 1940’s.            (See Sefer Sokolka {Sokolka Yizkor Book}: Chaim Lazar Bragstein married to Chana, one boy and one girl.  Hershke Bragstein married to Elke Halprin.)  There are several towns named Sokolka, in Poland, ranging from 83-176 miles South of Panemune.


     [35]  During WWI,  Tzerne  Bregstein, together with her daughter, Mary, and son, Wolf,  were forced by the Russians

                                              to leave Panemune and live in Rostov until the end of the war.


     [36] Chaim Hirsch Bregstein, for example, who lived on Vytauto Gatve (#73) in Panemune, thought that

                                           going to the United States was "...just a bunch of nonsense.  Who wants to go the United States?"

                                           (See Philo Bregstein, Terug naar Litouwen, p.63).  Though a Kovno Land Commission Document for

1929, states that Girsha Brekshtein (Chaim Hirsch) was living in Prendzialiavos {Frentzel’s Ponemon},

this was his widow, Tcherne, since Girsha had died in 1912.  (See Kovno Land Commission document,

F.210.A.5.B.24, in Vilnius State Archives, Vilnius, Lithuania).

                                                In 1883, Hirsch founded a brick factory in Rokai, near Panemune which was sold after his death  to

                                           Jewish neighbors. (In 1991, this factory, "Roku Keramikos Gamylka" (Rokai Ceramic Factory) was

                                           state owned.)  Land around Panemune that Hirsch owned, was sold by his widow at the end of WWI. 

       His home in Panemune which his son, Moisei, inherited, was sold in 1941 by a member of the Hurwitz

       family, who was “a cousin of Moisei” (Hirsch’s sister, Hinde Sarah, had married into the Horwich family)

       when Moisei and his family were exiled to Siberia.  (Upon Moises’ return, he received 5,000 rubles from the

       Hurwitz family member, though it was soon worth nothing because of devaluation).  The land around the

       house, was never sold, though some of it was claimed by the Soviet Army for military barracks and so,

      theoretically, still remains in the possession of the family to this day.  (Correspondence, Philo Bregstein,

      2008; (Grisha Bregstein conversation, 2008)).


[37] Rina Zibenberg stated in a 1994 interview that Hirsch sold the family farm "when he was old", and                                             moved into Panemune (around 1910).  Ruth Lowenstein Wetter, stated that her father, who was a                                                          lawyer, was involved in the sale, but that it took place after Hirsch’s death in 1912, probably to help raise                                              money for his widowed wife, Tcherne.   Grische Bregstein recalls (2008) that in his youth in the late 1920s,                                                                  he went several times on a horse to the farm, which was rented by a farmer, and played there. He states that it was                                                         shortly before WWII (around 1938) when Mary Bregstein decided to leave for the US that the farm was sold.                                (See Philo Bregstein, Terug naar Litouwen, op. cit.; Philo Bregstein correspondence, 2008) 

[38]  Edith Josephson’s grandmother, Yenta Bregstein, was living in Slobodka in 1935. (See Breakstone

 World, Vol. 8, Number 2, January, 1935, p. 4).


[39] Moshe's grandson, Moses Bregsteinas, was exiled with his family. Moses had served as an officer                                                       in the Lithuanian army during the  1919 Lithuania Independence War.  Following the war, he was a reserve                                          officer and president of the Kaunas chapter of the Association of Jewish Fighters for Lithuanian Independence.                                             (The organization was founded in 1933 to fight for the interest of Lithuanian Jews, due to the rise of                                                        anti-Semitism and the growing proto-fascist tendencies of the government). Charged with "counter-revolutionary"                                       activities, he was sentenced to eight years in labor camps.  On June 17, 1941, together with 212 others from                                     Kaunas, he was exiled with his family to Siberia.  (See Wolf Bregstein letters, 3/87, 4/30/87, 7/4/87, 7/15/87;                                    2/5/89; "Lithuanian Jew", American Federation for Lithuanian Jews, New York, June, 1943;  Yahadut Lita,                                            Vol. 4, Op. Cit., p.456; Bregsteinas, M., Ed., Almanachas "Skydas", Kaunas, 1934, pp. 10,15,24,32;                                       Bregsteinas, Moise File, KGB House, Vilnius; Philo Bregstein, Terug naar Litouwen, Van Gennep: Amsterdam,                                  1995).


[40] Eight family members perished in Kovno, and at least five family members perished in Tarnobrzeg, Poland. Rachel Hurwitz's daughter, Lilly Damien, survived the Kovno ghetto and went to Tenarife (Canary Islands).  Taube Bregstein fled with her husband, Josef Zilberman, and daughter, Sima, to Almata (Almathan), Koubekisthan (Uzbekistan?) by 1941.  They returned after the war to Lithuania, settling in Vilnius. (Philo Bregstein, "Grisja Bregstein is hier!", Vrig Nederland, May 27/1995, p. 40; Rina Zibenberg Interview, 21/17/94).


[41]  Sima Sandler, together with her husband, two daughters, and her mother, Taube, made aliyah to Israel in 1973. (See Philo Bregstein, Loc. Cit.; Rina Zibenberg interview, 12/17/94.)


[42] Specifically: Paris, France; Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Montevideo, Uraguay; Buenes Aires, Argentina; Barnaul, Russia; San Jose, Costa Rica; Tenarife, Canary Islands; Stockholm, Sweden; Aalborg, Denmark;  Tel Aviv, Israel.  (It should be noted that the majority of the forty “BRGSHTN” names found in Israeli phone books in 2005 are, in all probability, “Bergstein”s” not “Bregstein”s.)